Wednesday, April 06, 2011

DC Motor Controller Circuit Using 741 Op-Amp

This DC motor controller circuit using a 741 operational amplifier operating as a voltage follower where its non inverting input is connected to the speed and rotation direction of a potentiometer VR1. When VR1 is at mid position, the op-amp output is near zero and both Q1 and Q2 is OFF.

When VR1 is turned towards the positive supply side, the output will go positive voltage and Q1 will supply the current to the motor and Q2 will be OFF. When VR1 is turned to the negative supply side, the op-amp output switches to the negative voltage and Q1 will turn OFF and Q2 ON which reverses the rotation of the motor's direction.

Simple DC Motor Controller CircuitSkema Rangkaian DC Motor Controller Using 741 Op-Amp

741 Op-Amp Pinout

As the potentiometer VR1 is moved toward either end, the speed increases in whichever direction it is turning. The TIP3055 Q1 NPN power transistor has a collector current specs of 15A and VCE0 of 60V DC. The MJE34 Q2 PNP power transistor has a collector current specs of 10A and VCE0 of 40V DC.


Rangkaian 3V FM Transmitter

This 3V FM transmitter is about the simplest and most basic transmitter to build and have a useful transmitting range. It is surprisingly powerful despite its small component count and 3V operating voltage. It will easily penetrate over three floors of an apartment building and go over 300 meters in the open air.

The circuit is basically a radio frequency (RF) oscillator that operates around 100 MHz. Audio picked up andamplified by the electret microphone is fed into the audio amplifier stage built around the first transistor. Output from the collector is fed into the base of the second transistor where it modulates the resonant frequency of the tank circuit (the 5 turn coil and the trimcap) by varying the junction capacitance of the transistor. Junction capacitance is a function of the potential difference applied to the base of the transistor. The tank circuit is connected in a Colpitts
Rangkaian 3V FM TransmitterSkema Rangkaian 3V FM transmitter

Place the transmitter about 10 feet from a FM radio. Set the radio to somewhere about 89 - 90 MHz. Walk back tothe FM transmitter and turn it on. Spread the winding of the coil apart by approximately 1mm from each other. No coilwinding should be touching another winding. Use a small screw driver to tune the trim cap. Remove the screwdriverfrom the trim screw after every adjustment so the LC circuit is not affected by stray capicitance. Or use a plasticscrewdriver. If you have difficulty finding the transmitting frequency then have a second person tune up and downthe FM dial after every adjustment. One full turn of the trim cap will cover its full range of capacitance from 6pF to 45pF. The normal FM band tunes in over about one tenth of the full range of the tuning cap.

So it is best to adjust it in steps of 5 to 10 degrees at each turn. So tuning takes a little patience but is not difficult. The reason that there must be at least 10 ft. separation between the radio and the FM transmitter is that the FM transmitter emits harmonics; it does not only emit on one frequency but on several different frequencies close to each other. You should have little difficulty in finding the Tx frequency when you follow this procedure.


25V Capacitor Bank for OCL Amplifier

Rangkaian 25V Capacitor Bank

The circuit diagram below shows how the +25V DC and -25V DC are obtained. In order to provide power supply for stereo amplifiers, a power transformer rating of 80VA with 240V/36V centre tapped secondary winding is used. The secondary output of the transformer is rectified by using four 1N5401 diodes together with 4 electrolytic capacitors to smoothen the ripple voltage. A fuse and a varistor are connected at the primary input to protect the circuit against power surge. Here you can see the circuit’sdiagram diagram

25V Capacitor Bank for OCL AmplifierSkeme Rangkaian 25V Capacitor Bank for OCL Amplifier

Basic Capacitor Bank for OCL Amplifier
Although shown with 4,700uF filter capacitors, larger ones may be used. Anything beyond 10,000uF is too expensive, and will not improve performance to any worthwhile degree. Probably the best is to use two 4,700uF caps per side (four in all). This will actually work better than a single 10,000uF device, and will be cheaper as well.

It is essential that fuses are used for the power supply. While they will not stop the amp from failing (no fuse ever does), they will prevent catastrophic damage that would result from not protecting the circuit from over-current conditions.

Skema Rangkaian Elektronika