Tuesday, August 31, 2010

Skema Dancing LEDs, Following the Rhythm of Music

Dancing LEDs

The basic circuit illuminates up to ten LEDs in sequence, following the rhythm of music or speech picked-up by a small microphone. The expanded version can drive up to ten strips, formed by up to five LEDs each, at 9V supply.

Rangkaian Dancing LEDsSkema Rangkaian Dancing LEDs

IC1A amplifies about 100 times the audio signal picked-up by the microphone and drives IC1B acting as peak-voltage detector. Its output peaks are synchronous with the peaks of the input signal and clock IC2, a ring decade counter capable of driving up to ten LEDs in sequence.
An additional circuit allows the driving of up to ten strips, made up by five LEDs each (max.), at 9V supply. It is formed by a 10mA constant current source (Q1 & Q2) common to all LED strips and by a switching transistor (Q3), driving a strip obtained from 2 to 5 series-connected LEDs. Therefore one transistor and its Base resistor are required to drive each of the strips used.

List Component of Dancing LEDs Circuit
  • R1: 10K 1/4W Resistor
  • R2,R3: 47K 1/4W Resistors
  • R4: 1K 1/4W Resistor
  • R5,R6,R7: 100K 1/4W Resistors
  • R8: 820R 1/4W Resistor
  • C1,C3: 100nF/63V Ceramic or Polyester Capacitors
  • C2: 10µF/50V Electrolytic Capacitor
  • C4: 330nF/63V Polyester Capacitor
  • C5: 100µF/25V Electrolytic Capacitor
  • D1: 1N4148
  • D2-D11: LEDs (any type and color)
  • IC1: LM358
  • IC2: 4017
  • M1: electret microphone
  • SW1: SPST Switch
  • B1: 9V PP3 Battery
Additional circuit parts:
  • R9,R10: 10K 1/4W Resistors
  • R11: 56R 1/4W Resistor
  • D12,D13 etc.: LEDs (any type and color)
  • Q1,Q2: BC327
  • Q3: BC337
  • The sensitivity of the circuit can be varied changing R4 value.
  • C4 value can be varied from 220 to 470nF in order to change the circuit speed-response to music peaks.
  • Adopting the additional circuit, only one item for R10, R11, Q1 and Q2 is required to drive up to ten LED strips. On the contrary, one item of R9 and Q3 is necessary to drive each of the strips you decided to use.
  • Each R9 input must be connected to IC2 output pins, in place of the LEDs D2-D11 shown. R8 must also be omitted.
  • Whishing to use a lower number of LEDs or LED strips, pin #15 of IC2 must be disconnected from ground and connected to the first unused output pin.
  • For example: if you decided to use 5 LEDs, pin #15 of IC2 must be connected to pin #1; if you decided to use 8 LEDs, pin #15 of IC2 must be connected to pin #9 etc.
  • Current drawing of the circuit is about 10mA.
  • Whishing to use a wall-plug adapter instead of a 9V battery, you can supply the circuit at 12V, allowing the use of up to 6 LEDs per strip, or at 15V, allowing the use of up to 7 LEDs per strip.


Monday, August 23, 2010

Rangkaian LED 220VAC Sebagai Lampu Penerangan

The LED has advantages over other lighting technology. LED supposedly can hold up to 100,000 hours. This means that if the LED light 24 hours a day he would hold for 10 years. Whereas Fluorencent lights are usually only able to survive 1-3 years.

This is a modified version of the circuit, Super bright LED Night Light published that can directly connect to the netting PLN (220VAC).

rangkaian LED 220VACSkema rangkaian LED 220VAC

rangkaian LED 220VAC
Dangerous...!! this circuit directly connected to the netting of electricity, voltage 220V electricity it could sting you. Avoid working in damp and directly with ground

This is the circuit of a well tried and reliable 230-volt AC mains operated 24 LEDs (super bright LEDs 50mA). While Practically compare the brightness Between this and 11watts tube circuit, the LED light is much better. The layout is made in such a way, you get uniform Illumination. A photographs of the cicuit is Also given in this post.


Friday, August 20, 2010

Rangkaian Speaker Protector sederhana

Speaker Protector sederhana

This circuit follows will connects the speakers to the power amplifier output only a few seconds after the amplifier is powered ON, so that the speakers do not accept popped up by a high voltage and you would not Hear a loud thud sound from the speakers When the amplifier is switched on. This stuff is very harmful to the speakers.

Rangkaian Speaker Protector sederhanaSkema rangkaian speaker protector

When the amplifier is powered on the bridge D1 also gets powered through the amplifier’s power switch. Capacitor C1 filters the output of bridge rectifier D1. When the power switch is made ON, the transistor Q1 gets switched ON only after the capacitor C2 is sufficiently charged (0.7V) through the resistor R1. Here the value of C2 and R1 are so selected that the time delay is around 2 seconds. So the relay gets activated only after a few seconds the amplifier is powered ON and until that time the speaker will be kept isolated from the amplifier’s audio output as the speaker is connected to the amplifier’s output through the N/O contact of the relay. During this initial delay period the output of amplifier will be grounded by the resistor R2 through the N/C contact of the relay. This is done in order to ensure that the DC blocking capacitor at the amplifier’s output is charged before it is connected to the speaker.

Rangkaian Speaker Protector sederhanaBetter quality speaker protector Circuit


Sunday, August 15, 2010

Rangkaian Magnetic proximity sensors

Here is the circuit diagram of a magnetic proximity switch sensor which can be used in various applications. The circuit is based on a magnetic reed switch as the proximity sensor. A monostable multivibrator based on NE555 and a toggle flip flop CD4013 does the rest of the circuit.

rangkaian magnetic proximity sensors  Skema rangkaian magnetic proximity sensors
magnetic reed switch magnetic reed switch sensor

The magnetic proximity switch sensor circuit, in principle, consists of a reed switch at its heart. When a magnet is brought in the vicinity of the reed switch it operates and controls the rest of the switching circuit. In place of the reed switch, one may, as well, use a general-purpose electromagnetic reed relay as the sensor, if required. These tiny reed relays are easily available as they are widely used in telecom products. The reed switch or relay to be used with this circuit should be the normally open type.

When a magnet is brought in the vicinity of the sensor element for a moment, the contacts of the reed switch close to trigger timer IC1 wired in monostable mode. As a consequence its output at pin 3 goes high for a short duration and supplies clock to the clock input (pin 3 CD4013). LED D2 is used as a response indicator.

This CMOS IC2 consists of two independent flip-flops though here only one is used. Note that the flip-flop is wired in toggle mode with data input (pin 5) connected to the Q (pin 2) output. On receipt of clock pulse, the Q output changes from low to high state and due to this the relay driver transistor T1 gets forward-biased. As a result the relay RL1 is energised.


Saturday, August 14, 2010

Rangkaian Audio Channel Selector Stereo

Audio Channel Selector

This circuit serves for connecting the stereo outputs from Four Different channels as inputs and only one of Them is selected to the output at any one time.

When the circuit switch on, channel A (AR and AL) is selected. If no audio is present in channel A, the circuit Waits for Some time and then Selects the next channel (channel B). This search operation continues Until it detects an audio signal in one of the channels. The inter-channel delay time or the wait Can be adjusted with the help of preset VR1. If still longer time is needed, May replace one capacitor C1 with of higher value.

To manually skip over from one active channel to another active channel, simply push the skip switch (S1), until the desired channel input gets selected. The selected channel (A, B, C, or D) is indicated by the glowing of corresponding LED (LED11, 12, 13, or 14 ).

Rangkaian Audio Channel Selector  Stereo  Skema rangkaian audio channel selector stereo

IC CD4066 contains 4 analog switches, These switches are connected to four separate channels. These analogue switches are controlled by IC CD4017 outputs. CD4017 is a 10-bit ring counter IC. Since only one of its outputs is high at any instant, only one switch will be closed at a time. IC CD4017 is configured as a 4-bit ring counter by connecting the fifth output Q4 (pin 10) to the reset pin. Capacitor C5 in conjunction with resistor R6 forms a power-on-reset circuit for IC2, so that on initial switching on of the power supply, output Q0 (pin 3) is always high . The clock signal to CD4017 is provided by IC1 NE555 which acts as an astable multivibrator when transistor T1 is in cut- off state.

IC5 KA2281 is used here for not only indicating the audio levels of the selected stereo channel, but also for forward biasing transistor T1. As soon as a specific threshold audio level is detected in a selected channel, pin 7 and/or pin 10 of IC5 goes low . This low level is coupled to the base of transistor T1, through diode-resistor combination of D2-R1/D3-R22. As a result, transistor T1 conducts and causes output of IC1 to remain low as long as the selected channel output exceeds the preset audio threshold level.

Presets VR2 and VR3 have been included for adjustment of individual audio threshold levels of left and right stereo channels, as desired. Once the multivibrator action of IC1 is disabled, output of IC2 does not change further. Hence, searching through the channels continues until it receives an audio signal exceeding the preset threshold value. The skip switch S1 is used to skip a channel even if audio is present in the selected channel. The number of channels can be easily extended up to ten, by using additional 4066 ICs.


Wednesday, August 11, 2010

Rangkaian Kontrol Kecepatan Wiper Mobil

Pengontrol Kecepatan Wiper

For some car wiper speed sometimes just made some speed so that less appropriate when we want a different speed, but for those of you who want a digital wiper speed controller you can also use this circuit to replace your old system.

rangkaian kontrol kecepatan wiper mobilSkema rangkaian kontrol kecepatan wiper mobil

This circuit comprises 2 timer NE555 ICs, one CD4017 decade counter, one TIP32 driver transistor, a 2N3055/ TIP3055 power transistor and A Few other discrete components. Timer IC1 is configured as a mono-stable multivibrator produces a pulse Pls Which one presses switch S1 momentarily. This pulse acts as a clock pulse for the decade counter (IC2) Which advances by one count on Each successive clock pulse or the push of switch S1. Ten presets (VR1 through VR10), for Different sets of values by trial and error, Are Used At The ten outputs of IC2. But since only one output of IC2 is high at a time, only one preset (selected at the output) effectively comes in series with resistors R4 and R5 timing connected in the circuit of timer IC3 Which functions in astable mode. As presets VR1 through VR10 are set for Different values, Different time periods (or frequencies) for astable multivibrator IC3 Can be selected. The output of IC3 is applied to the pnp driver transistor TIP32 for driving the final power transistor 2N3055 Which in turn drives the wiper motor at the selected sweep speed. The power supply for the wiper motor as well as the circuit is tapped from the vehicle s battery Itself. The duration of the monostable multivibrator IC1 is set for a period of nearly one second.

Source : www.electronic-circuits-diagrams.com


Tuesday, August 10, 2010

Rangkaian Charge Monitor for 12V battery

This circuit project is a function for monitoring the charge level of 12 volt batteries continuously. The circuit possesses two vital features:

  1. reduces the requirement of human attention by about 85%.
  2. highly accurate and sophisticated methods.
A battery is a vital element of any battery-backed system. In many cases the battery is more expensive than the systems it is backing up. We need to Adopt Hence all practical measures to Conserve battery life.

As per manufacturer's data sheets, a 12V rechargeable battery operated Should be within 10. IV and 13.8V. When the battery charges higher than 13.8V it is said to be overcharged, and it discharges below 10.IV Pls Can it be Deeply discharged. A single event of overcharge or deep discharge Can bring down the charge-holding capacity of a battery by 15 to 20%.

Rangkaian charge monitor for 12V batterySkema rangkaian charge monitor for 12V battery


For calibrating the upper and lower reference levels, a digital multimeter and a variable regulated power supply source are required. For calibrating the lower reference voltage, follow the steps given below:
  • Set the output of power supply source to 10. IV.
  • Connect the power supply source in place of the battery.
  • Now the display will show some reading. At this point vary preset VR2 until the reading on the display just changes from 1 to 0.
  • The higher reference voltage is calibrated similarly by setting the power supply to 13.8V and varying preset VR1 until reading on the display just changes from 8 to 9.

How to Work a Circuit of Charge Monitor for 12V Battery

Input from the battery under test is applied to LM3914 1C. This applied voltage is ranked anywhere between 0 and 10, depending upon its magnitude. The lower reference voltage of 10.IV is ranked '0' and the upper voltage of 13.8V is ranked as '10.' (Outputs 9 and 10 are logically ORed in this circuit.) This calibration of reference voltages is explained above.

1C 74LS147 is a decimal-to-BCD priority encoder which converts the output of LM3914 into its BCD complement. The true BCD is obtained by using the hex inverter 74LS04. This BCD output is displayed as a decimal digit after con version using IC5 (74LS247), which is a BCD-to-seven-segment decoder/driver. The seven-segment LED display (LTS-542) is used because it is easy to read compared to a bar graph or, for that matter, an analogue meter. The charge status of the battery can be quickly calculated from the display. For instance, if the display shows 4, it means that the battery is charged to 40 per cent of its maximum value of 13.8V.

The use of digital principles enables us to employ a buzzer that sounds whenever there is an overcharge or deep discharge, or there is a need to conserve battery charge. A buzzer is wired in the circuit such that it sounds whenever battery-charge falls to ten per cent. At this point it is recommended that unnecessary load be switched off and the remaining charge be conserved for more important purposes.

Another simple combinational logic circuit can also be designed that will sound the buzzer when the display shows 9. Further charging should be stopped at this point in order to pre vent overcharge.

Skema Rangkaian Elektronika