Friday, May 29, 2009

simple circuit of infra red remote control

By using the NE 555 and LM 567we can create a system of remote control via infra red light media. This system works based on the frequency of reading the signal transmitted, so that the frequency of the signal transmitter in the series must be the same as the receiving frequency.
Frequency on the transmitter is determined by the value of R1 and C1 based on the following equation:

infra red remote control Transmitter

As mentioned above, the recipient must also have the same detection frequency with a frequency that transmitted by a circuit of transmitter. Frequency of a circuit of receiver is determined by the following equation:

infra red remote control Reciever

To simplify the process of tunning, R1 on the part of the receiver is a variable resistor. while at the transmitter is still valuable. When the series was ready, so that the system can work well, the first step is to do tunning, with the way the transmitter is turned on continuously, while R1 is set in the value until the recipient can detect the signal transmitter


Lampu Otomatis Sederhana


Gbr. Rangkaian lampu otomatis

Component list:
  • R1 = 100K Pot
  • Q1 = 2N3904 or 2N2222
  • Q2 =NPN PhotoTransistor
  • RELAY= 9V Relay


time delay with 555 chip

A time delay relay circuit is a relay that stays on for a certain amount of time once activated. This time delay relay is made up of a adjustable timer circuit which controls the actual relay. The time is adjustable from 0 to about 20 seconds with the parts specified. The current capacity of the circuit is only limited by what kind of relay you decide to use.

  • R1 adjusts the on delay time.
  • use a different capacitor for C1 to change the maximum on time.
  • S1 is used to activate the timing cycle.


Monday, May 25, 2009

Mengukur Transistor Menggunakan Multi Meter

Ekivalen transistor with two dioda combined, so that the test dioda principle applied to the test transistor.

Cara Mengukur Transistor Menggunakan Multi Meter

Multimeter set on step x100, investigators in the black paste on the base and red at th colector, needle should move to the right. When the investigators moved to Emitor red, needle should move to the right again.

Then the investigators red on the base and black at the Colector, needle should not deviate, and when investigators black moved to Emitor needle also must not deviate.

next Multimeter set on the step 1 k, investigator in the black paste the collectors and red on the emittor, needle must digress a little to the right and if the investigators behind, the needle should not deviate. When one of the events do not happen, then transistor damaged.

For PNP Transitor type, the test is done with the investigators red on the base and black on the colector, needle must digress to the right. Similarly, when the red investigator moved to Emitor, needle must digress to the right again.


Mengukur Kapasitor Menggunkan Multi Meter

Previous cargo in the condenser discharge (connected pin positive and negative). set the multimeter on the stride Ohm, paste investigator red poles on the positive and black on the negative.

When the needle deviate to the right and then a fade back to the left, the condenser means. When the needle does not move, condenser dropping out and when the needle moves to the full right and not back, the possibility of leaking condenser.

Cara mengukur menggunakan Multi meter

To test elco 10 F x1k in stride. Capacity for up to 100 F at x100 stride, above 1000 F, x1 stride and test non-electrolyte condenser stride on x10 k.


Sunday, May 24, 2009

Digital Voleme Control

Rangkaian Digital Voleme Control
Rangkaian Digital Voleme Control

in this series can use a digital set the volume on the amplifier or tone control. although the tone control is the volume available, but we can make a volume control with a series.

to use this series, release potensiometer the tone control that serves to set the volume, and then connect the output volume of the series of digital control pin to the middle tone contrlol, input pin to the right and the left on the ground.


RH - High Terminal of Potentiometer
RW - Wiper Terminal of Potentiometer
RL - Low Terminal of Potentiometer
-V, +V - Voltage Inputs
UC - Up Contact Input
D - Digital Input
DC - Down Contact Input


12 watt FM Transmitter

The advantages of FM modulation is free from the influence of air disturbance, the bandwidth (wide band) is larger, and the high fidelitas. If compared with the AM system.

fm transmitter is a modification of the fm transmitter on the market (type of saturn s 038). with several series of modifications and additions boster series can produce power at around 12 watts

Circuit FM transmitter

try in the series after this work is quite good, the signal generated is stable and strong enough
up time should not in a hurry to do directly, but overall do each part in sequence so that the error may be earlier

the first part of the work is in the oscillator, after the raft can try in turn to the way radio waves on the free and set the radio volume so clearly audible hissing sound. turn up the core koker hissing sound on the radio is missing, if you get a signal in a robust and stable means that the set of oscillator has been working with both.

the next section can start at the raft, after finished the second set trimer (C8 and C11) in the buffer in turn can power up in most large and most small SWR. If the series works well, will produce approximately 0.25 watt power

to get more resources than most can add more series boster 12 watt range, so the distance will be increased to reach 7-fold

12 watt Boster Circuit FM transmitter



physical irfz44 & CD4047 chip

Simple Circuit of UPS on line

UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply), is used to anticipate the power off. Output series UPS has a power of 60W (if the transformer is used the greater the power will higher). Before the series there is a major series of the adapter has a voltage between 9V - 12V with strong currents of 5A. Voltage generated is used to operate the series and fill the battery. UPS is designed to keep electronic devices can run even if the electricity off.


5 Band equalizer

BA 3812 chip 5 Band equalizer

Rangkaian 5 band equalizerSkema Rangkaian 5 band equalizer

In this part of the investigation in a series of 5-band Equalizer circuits with a single IC BA3812 L. a device used in the hi-fi. IC BA 3812 This is with 5-point Equalizer with all the functions integrated in one IC.

Equalizer has advantages, namely: small distortion, a small noise, dinamic local area, and is suitable for a series of hi-fi stereo. And with a wide voltage range from 3.5 volt to 16 volt. Voltage is the recommended 8 volt but according 9volt highest voltage.

The following 5 frequency channels from this series:
  • 100 hz
  • 300 hz
  • 1 khz
  • 3 khz
  • 10 khz
5 band simple Equalizer

Rangkaian 5 band equalizerSkema Rangkaian 5 band equalizer

Following series can be used as a 5 channel Equalizer simple cheap. Working principle of this series is a series of band pass frequency with center frequency of 10 kHz, 2.5 kHz, 625 Hz, 40 Hz and 155Hz. By using potensiometer, the value of each frequency band pass possible change.


Tuesday, May 19, 2009

Battery indicator

In this part of the investigation in a circuit of battery indicators , this is arise such alarm sound or light up when the battery already weak, so that needs to be replaced or re-charge.

Circuit of Battery indicator


voltage used is 12 volt
Low voltage warning flow: 15 mA
Alarm tone can be changed with the R7.

Tips Merawat Battery basah
  • Keep the electrolyte in the battery between the lower level and upper level lines. Check it at least once a month.
  • Short of electrolyte will cause sulfation to the elements and reduce the battery's performance in generating electricity flow.
  • Use distilled/demineralized water only for battery filling. Avoid using tap/well/mineral water as they may contain metal ions or organic substances that lower the battery's performance and its life.
  • Clean the battery's surface and keep from any electrolyte spill.
  • Clean the terminal surface using a little grease/lubrication to prevent from oxidation or fungus.
  • Do not connect the positive and negative terminal using a piece of wire as this will damage/terminate the connection between the terminals and elements.
  • Make sure the wire connection to the terminals is tight enough. Loose connection causes sparks, it may cause the battery explodes.
  • Cover the positive terminal's surface using isolator (plastic/rubber) to avoid short circuit to the vehicles body.
  • Cover the battery's surface with plastic/rubber sheet to protect it from dust/dirt blocking the vent holes.
  • Check the vent holes periodically. Blocked vent holes may cause the battery expand and eventually will cause explosion or leakage.

Tips Recharge a battery
Quick-charge recharging.
  • Make sure the charger is at OFF position
  • Attach the clips (red + and black -)
  • Connect the charger to the electricity point
  • Set the timer
  • Set the recharging flow (maximal equivalent to the battery's normal capacity).
  • These steps apply only to an emergency condition.

Normal recharging.
  • Make sure the charger is at OFF position
  • Attach the clips (red + and black -)
  • Connect the battery in parallel fashion
  • The recharge flow is selected for a battery with small capacity
  • Recharge flow volume is 1/10 of normal capacity
  • Recharge time: 3 times constant voltage.

After recharging is completed.
  • Turn off the charger
  • Release the clips on the battery
  • Release the wire from the electricity point.


Sunday, May 17, 2009

Jam Digital berbasis Mikrokontroler AT89s51

Rangkaian Jam Digital berbasis Mikrokontroler AT89s51

Digital hours to make this not too difficult. This series is not my original project, I trace the series of files and program from the internet, there is no chance the program listing. After I download the file to its hex-hour direct way. This clock only displays hours and minutes, to seconds However you can install the led associated with a series of I Hz oscillator formed from IC 555 (which I do, because I do not know the program listing), 2 led in parallel and installed as a bookmark seconds. Led to two installed in the middle of the hours and minutes. Although with the way that seconds and minutes if observed (calculated) decline slightly but I'm not the problem, Moreover people will not know about it. Digital hours following scheme:
Circuit digital watch

To me its PCB design itself, of course are still using my favorite software, PCB designer. Next the PCB layout (look up) :
PCB layout of digital watch

  • PCB file can download it here.
  • Hex file. can be downloaded here.


Sunday, May 10, 2009

Skema Audio Ampflifier

60 watt Audio Amplifier

This circuit in the complete with bass-boost control on the fedback loop amplifier, this is done to overcome the declining quality of tone Bass. Graphic bass can reach a maximum at +16.4 dB @ 50Hz.

Note: Q3 and Q4 should be put in with the heatsinks.

Set the volume control on the position of the minimum and R3 with a minimum value resistansi also. try to switch the series and set up to R3 legible flow about 20 to 25mA.

Component List:

R6, 7
C1, 8
C2, 5
C3, 4
: 22k (Potesiometer)
: 100k (potensiometer)
: 820R 1/4W
: 4K7 1/4W
: 500R 1/2W
: 82K 1/4W
: 47K 1/4W
: 10R 1/2W
: 0,22 4W(wirewound)
: 470nF 63V
: 100uF/25V
: 470uF/25V
:47pF 63V
:10nF 63V
IC 1

: 100nF 63V
: 1N4148
: NE5532
: BC547B
: BC557B
: TIP42A
: TIP41A
: RCA Input

20 Watt Audio Amplifier

Circuit 20 Watt Audio Amplifier

Component List:

: 39K 1/4 watt
: 10 uF 25v
: 100 uF 25v
: 47 uF 25v
: 0.1 uF 25v
: 2200 uF 25v
: TDA1554

  • The circuit works best with 4 ohm speakers, but 8 ohm units will do.
  • The circuit dissipates roughly 28 watts of heat, so a good heatsink is necessary. The chip should run cool enough to touch with the proper heatsink installed.
  • The circuit operates at 12 Volts at about 5 Amps at full volume. Lower volumes use less current, and therefore produce less heat.

LM386 Audio Amplifier

This simple amplifier shows the LM386 in a high-gain configuration . For a maximum gain of only 20, leave out the 10 uF connected from pin 1 to pin 8. Maximum gains between 20 and 200 may be realized by adding a selected resistor in series with the same 10 uF capacitor. The 10k potentiometer will give the amplifier a variable gain from zero up to the maximum.

lm 3876/lm 3886 50 Watt Audio Amplifier

The 10 Ohm and 2.7 Ohm resistors must be 1 Watt types, and all others should be 1% metal film. All electrolytic capacitors should be rated at 50V if at all possible, and the 100nF (0.1uF) caps for the supplies should be as close as possible to the IC to prevent oscillation.

The supply voltage should be about +/- 35 Volts at full load, which will let this little guy provide a maximum of 56 Watts. To enable maximum power, it is important to get the lowest possible case to heatsink thermal resistance.


Power supplay (Adapter)

12 volt dual voltage of adapter

  • Transformator 18v-CT (min)
  • Capasitor 35v
  • Bridge Rectifier 2 Ampere /100 v
  • c4, c5 Ceramic

12 VOLT 20 Ampere of adapter

Using a single 7812 IC voltage regulator and multiple outboard pass transistors, this power supply can deliver output load currents of up to 20 amps.


Skema Rangkaian Oscillator LM555

LM555 Astable oscillator Circuit.

Circuit oscillator astable

Frequency of the output pulses is determined by the values of two resistors, R1 and R2 and by the timing capacitor, C.

To calculate the frequency (F):

To calculate the the On time or Off time:

Before calculating a frequency, you should know that it is usual to make R1=1 kΩ because this helps to give the output pulses a duty cycle close to 50%, that is, the HIGH and LOW times of the pulses are approximately equal.

LM555 Monostable oscillator Circuit.
circuit oscillator monostable

Trigger input is held HIGH by the 10 kΩ pull up resistor and is pulsed LOW when the trigger switch is pressed. The circuit is triggered by a falling edge, that is, by a sudden transition from HIGH to LOW. The trigger pulse, produced by pressing the button, must be of shorter duration than the intended output pulse.

To calculate the period (t):


Circuits of Audio Booster

Audio booster with transistor

The 2N3392 transistor is a (cheap) low-power, low-noise and high-gain. If you wish to use a TUN, cross reference the parameters with one of the units from this list:

Potentiometer R5 of 100K is a linear type. The value of C1 may need to be between 0.05uF and 0.1uF (47nF/100nF). Experiment with the value for best performance.
Capacitor C3's working voltage should be at least 16V.


Circuits of Infra Red Sensor

Circuit of Movement detectors

Photodioda as removing the transmitter beam infra red with the pulsation frequency 5KHz, then the pulsation will be reflection by reflector in front of it. and received by the phototransistor as the receiver. The detected object is located between the transmitter-receiver with a reflector.

Circuit on the left is the transmitter modulation circuit that produces infrared 5KHz throbbing. On the right side is the receiver circuit, there is a resonance tuned amplifier. Band width it can control so the receiver circuit can catch the beat of the transmitter modulation 5Khz. Bandwidth control is also working to reduce the sensitivity of the effect of light in the surrounding areas.


Circuits of audio pre-Amp mic

A microphone preamp is a preamplifier used to amplify a microphone's low output voltage to a stronger, more usable level. A microphone preamp must provide stable gain for small signals without being sensitive to induced noise from cabling and without distorting large amplitude signals. Most microphones must be used in conjunction with a microphone preamp to function properly.

Simple audio Pre-Amp mic

This circuits use infront an RF oscilator to make an RF transmitter that is very sensitive to sound


Circuit of Mouse Repellent

A simple series of mouse repellent is a oscilator the issue on the ultrasonic wave frequency range 20 - 40 kHz. The ultrasonic waves will not be heard in the ear, but we will be with the one for the mouse ear. Base Frequency will be modulation with a 50 Hz signal is obtained from the frequency PLN through capacitor C4 (to avoid a mouse immune to it) so that the resulting swing frequency between 20 - 40 kHz periodically. Effects experienced mouse feels very good, seems like we are at a music concert with the rhythm of perplexedly ragged and could not enjoy at all. (What the human ear will not hear at all).
Circuit of Mouse Repellent

Components list:
: 1 K
: 15 K
: 1 nF
: 1 uF/16v
: 100 nF
: 220 nF
: 1000 uF/16v
: 1n4001
: LM 555
: Trafo 6v/200mA
: Speaker twiter
: fuse 100 mA

Heart of a series of repellent electronic mouse is a type of IC 555 that have been very popular, cheap and versatile. Use of the piezo electric loudspeaker (tweeter speaker ) so that the ultrasonic frequency is more effective. Electronic rat repellent is effective for rooms up to 200 m2 area of origin appropriate placement. Can be placed in the top corner of the room so that its frequency noise can be spread to all rooms without a hitch. Turn on continuously to ensure that the mouse does not come again.


Rangkaian Audio tone control

Bass-treble tone control circuits

  • Wide supply voltage range, 9V to 16V
  • Large volume control range, 75 dB typical
  • Tone control, ±15 dB typical
  • Channel separation, 75 dB typical
  • Low distortion, 0.06% typical for an input level of 0.3 Vrms
  • High signal to noise, 80 dB typical for an input level of 0.3 Vrms
  • Few external components required

Note: Vcc can be anything between 9V to 16Vand the output capacitors are 10uF/25V electrolytic.

the circuits provide some additional control over tone. They were origionally intended for use with synth modules but could be easily incorporated into most any effects circuit

Tree band aktiv tune control

A tone control circuit made with a single op-amp and having three ranges, bass, middle and treble controls.


Automatic lamp Circuit

This series will work as the lighting will automatically turn on when the voltage net PLN off. If the net voltage on the series will off automatically.

Emergency Light chain scheme can be viewed directly on the image above

Components list:

: 33 Ohm
: 470 Omh
: 470 uF/16v
: 1n4001
switch (push on push off)
: BC 160 or BC 143
: 4,5 volt 200 mA
: lamp 2,5 volt
: NiCd 2x1,25 volt 2-4 Ah

Series of automatic lighting unit is very simple. Voltage electricity from the net PLN revealed by transformer Tr1 and change in DC with half-wave system by dioda D1 and capacitor C1.
Next portion 6 Volt DC is used to fill the 2 Ni-Cad Battery through R1 and D2 with a continuous flow of about 100 mA (charging current to a safe a Ni-Cad battery 2 Ah).

reverse bias between the base of emitor transistors T1 obtained from the voltage fall on the D2 will make transistors T1 does not work so that lamp will be off. When voltage net PLN suppressed, T1 base transistors will be biased flow through R2, transistors T1 will work and lamp on.

When the voltage net PLN entry, transistors T1 will does not work, the lamp will be off and the battery charged through R1 and D2

Skema Rangkaian Elektronika