## Sunday, July 05, 2009

### Rangkaian Penguat Tak Membalik/Differensial Op Amp 741

Penguat Operasional (Operasional Amplifier)

Brace OPERATIONAL (OP-AMP) is a series of integration (IC) that is capable of linier provide the very large and can be operated at intervals voltage which is quite big. Op-amp to be able to give up at the 100,000 for an op-amp in a series of open-Hubung until only of 1 (one) time when the cohort is used as a series of voltage (voltage FOLLOWER).

Penguat Tak Membalik

The following circuit schemes is an Op Amp is applied in a non-inverting amplifier mode, the output voltage (Vo) has the same phase with the input voltage (Vi). From the way the arrangement can be seen that the input signal is connected to input non-inverting Op-Amp, so the output signal has the same phase with the input signal.
Skema Rangkain Penguat Tak Membalik

As shown in the picture sequence above, the output voltage has the same phase with voltage inputs. The amount of strengthening the non-inverting circuit is determined from a comparison of the value of R1 and R2. Resistors R1 and R2 form a resistive divider network to provide the feedback voltage (VA) are needed to reverse the input.

Show that the gain of the amplifier is:
Output voltage can be calculated using the following formula:

Penguat Differensial

Penguat Differensial is a brace which the output voltage Vo is or is the result of the difference between the two voltage inputs on the terminal non-inverting and inverting it. General formula that applies to brace differensial is as follows:
Rangkaian differensial brace shown in Figure below.

## Thursday, July 02, 2009

### Rangkaian game 7-segmen

Skema Rangkaian game 7-segmen

You can play this game alone or with your friends. The circuit comprises a timer IC, two meters of decade and a driver of posting with a posting of segment 7. The play is simple. Like city above, it is a play of marking and the competitor which marks 100 points quickly (in short stages) is gaining it. To mark, one with the option to press the S2 switch or S3. Commutate S2, once pressed, realize against counting in the direction forwards, whereas the S3 switch helps to count in bottom. Before beginning a fresh play, and for this matter even a fresh movement, you must press on the S1 switch to give to zero the circuit. Then, press on the two switches the ones of, C. - with-D. S2 or S3. On pressing on the switch S2 or S3, the exits of the BCD of the meter change very quickly and when you release the switch, last remainders of number locked with the output of IC2. The locked number of BCD entered the BCD to the decoder of 7 segments/au conducting IC3 which leads a posting DIS1 of common-anode. However, you can read this number only when you press on the S4 switch. The order of the operations to play the (Rangkaian game 7-segmen) game enters, indicate that the `X of two players and Y, are recapitulated below:

• The `X of player starts by pressing temporary contact STRONG CURRENT S1 followed by pressing and release of the S2 switch or S3. Then it supports on the S4 switch to read posting (points) and of the notes in bottom of this number (known as X1) manually.
• The `Y of player also starts by pressing temporary S1 switch followed by the pressing of the S2 switch or S3 and note then in bottom of its points (known as Y1), after having pressed on the S4 switch, exactly of the same mode as made by the first player.
• The `X of player still presses on the S1 switch and repeats the stages shown in stage 1 above and the notes in bottom of its new points (said, X2). He adds these points to his preceding points. The same process is repeated by the `Y of player in his turn.
• The play continues up to the points reached by one of the two totals of players until or exceeds 100, to be declared as gaining.
• Several players can take part in this play, with each one which obtains a chance to mark during its own turn. The assembly can be made using a universal council. Fix posting (LED and posting of segment 7) on the box with the three switches. The supply voltage for the circuit is 5V

### Rangkaian Volt Meter Digital sederhana

Digital voltmeters are instruments that measure voltage or voltage drop in a circuit. They use solid-state components and display values digitally. Typically, digital voltmeters (digital volt meters) are used to locate excessive resistance that may indicate an open circuit or ground. They are also used to identify low voltage or voltage drops that may indicate a poor connection. Digital voltmeters are connected in parallel (and never in series) with the circuit being tested so that the meter can tap a small amount of current. The positive lead is connected to the circuits positive side and the negative lead is connected to the circuits ground. The digital voltmeters internal resistance is the impedance, which is usually expressed in ohms per volt. This amount is relatively high in order to prevent the device from drawing significant current and disturbing the operation of the circuit being tested. The sensitivity of the current meter and the value of the series resistance determine the range of voltages that digital voltmeters can measure.

Digital voltmeters can measure a range of alternating current (AC) voltages, direct current (DC) voltages, or both AC and DC voltages. Devices typically display between three and seven digits. Some digital voltmeters can capture minimum and maximum voltages called spike readings.

In the picture below is a series of simple digital voltmeter using the Seven-segment display, this series based ICL7107.The ICL7107 is a 3 1 / 2 digit LED A / D convertor. It contains an internal voltage reference, high isolation Switches analog, sequential control logic, and the display drivers. The auto-zero adjust ensures zero reading for 0 volts input.
Gambar skema Rangkaian Voltmeter digital

## Tuesday, June 30, 2009

### Bentuk Box|Kotak Speaker Yang baik

In addition to Volume speaker kotak|box, box shape also affect the sound in the generate. To get a box the size of the speakers can be read here.

form of box speakers(Bentuk Box) in the book actually does not have a written rule., But from some research done by the experts, form the most easily made with the results of which are quite good in terms of four and the worst in the form of a cube which is the size of all high, kedalamannya width and the same.

In addition to form, the use of bracing on the inside of the box is also highly recommended. Bracing as the brace is working out of the box as a deterrent and the occurrence of vertical waves (standing waves) that can disrupt the sound generated by the speaker. Vertical waves this can be overcome with the use of bracing and the use of glass wool reducer such as foam or the many available in the shops that sell electronic components. Installation glass wool should be thick on the walls in each box except the front wall of the reducer does not need to be coated. Too much of the reducer can be adjusted with any taste. If the bass sound produced is too hard, so should be added peredamnya but if sound basnya too teredam or even nearly lost, the need to reduced.

For comparison demensi length - width - depth and, some experts suggest a ratio (comparison) in order to obtain the right shower sound good. Suggest that there are 2.6: 1.6: 1 and have also suggested a comparison of 2: 1.4: 1

For example, for the volume of 15 liters, then we can specify the size of a high - width-depth with the ratio 2: 1: 1.4 as follows:

Specified width of 18 cm (1), high 18 cm x 2 = 36 cm (2), depth 18 cm x 1.4 = 25 cm .. Please note, this is the size of the box, so not including the thickness of the box to make.

Thickness of wood to be used should be used over a thickness of 1.5 cm is intended to get a strong box and vibration free. Wood is commonly used particle board or MDF, or the call type multiplek. Installation of speakers in the box is also important to consider. If possible, have well made the box so that the average speaker chassis with box or flush mounting is called normal. This is a very big influence on the emission of sound determine the quality of sound produced.

## Thursday, June 18, 2009

### Lampu Flip-Flop 2 transistor

Skema Rangkaian Of flip-flop lights These are so simple to use as match practice for learning electronics. For more details, please see the direct image bundle its schemes under the

Gbr. Skema Rangkaian Lampu Flip-Flop

components List:
• R1, R3: 22 kohm
• R2, R4: 150 ohm
• TR1, TR2: FCS913
• C1, C2: 47 volt uF/16
• Source Voltage: 3 to 12 Volt

Rangkaian of lights or fold some of the usual call to the Lamp is a flirtatious multivibrator-astabil (unstable multivibrator). Transistor in the second set of this stuff to dispatch and in turn so that the LED D1 and D2 will turn on and off alternately. Flame-speed turn off the LED is determined by the size of the capacitors C1 and C2. The greater the value of the capacitor will slowly change the frequency of the second flame-out LED lights. With the value of C1 = C2 then LED1 and LED2 akan flame-out with the same frequency.

The required voltage is 9 VDC. If using a 3 Volt power portion (2 pieces battery 1.5 Volt), R1 and R2 can be omitted and the LED cathode feet each connect directly to the collectors of transistors foot related.

## Tuesday, June 16, 2009

### Rangkaian UPS sedehana

Uninterruptible power supply (UPS), also known as a battery back-up, provides emergency power and, depending on the topology, line regulation as well to connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source when utility power is not available. It differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system or standby generator, which does not provide instant protection from a momentary power interruption. A UPS, however, can be used to provide uninterrupted power to equipment, typically for 5–15 minutes until an auxiliary power supply can be turned on, utility power restored, or equipment safely shut down.

While not limited to safeguarding any particular type of equipment, a UPS is typically used to protect computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption or data loss.

picture below is a simple series of UPS. This series UPS has a power of 60W (if the transformer is used more, the power output of the UPS is also greater).

Gambar Skema Rangkaian UPS

description :
Transformer: Min 4 ampere or more
Diode|Dioda: Min 5 ampere or more
Irfz 44: Paste cooling plate

When normal PLN Electricity, of the adapter (the series of the most left) will produce voltage 12 - 13 volt / 5 ampaere. This voltage is used to fill mengoprasikan UPS batery and therefore this UPS if you plan to load a higher modifikasilah of this series that have a higher ampere. PLN electricity when dead, the source voltage in the switch to akan bateray

When electricity PLN suppressed, the source voltage will switch to the battery. ups that may be living longer while the power off, use battery who have ampere / hour high (large) or can also install some of the ways in parallel battery

### Remote Control infra Merah Sederhana

By using the NE 555 and LM 567, we can make the system infra red remote control. Remote control works based on this reading frequency signal that is sent, so that the transmitter frequency signal must be the same as the receive frequency. Frequency on the remote control transmitter is determined by the value R1 and C1 based on the following equation:

Skema Rangkaian Remote Control Transmitter

As mentioned above, the remote control must have the same frequency with the frequency transmitted by the transmitter chain. Recipient of this frequency range can be determined with the following equation:

Skema Rangkaian penerima Remote Control

To simplify the process of tunning, R1 at the recipient install a remote control in the variable resistor (VR). while the transmitter constant value (resisitor tetep / normal). If a circuit of remote control has been completed on the raft, to know whether a circuit of working well, the first step must be done is make tunning, with the transmitter is turned on continuously, while R1 is set so that the recipient can detect the signal transmitter. If the tuning is successful, the relay recipient akan romote control switch position (nye-Tech), when it has happened means that a circuit of remote control is working well. to the next can try pressing the switch on the remote control at the sender (transmitter). should switch on when the press kutup relay at the remote recipients will move kutup (nye-Tech).

## Saturday, June 06, 2009

### How to use the ADC 0808/0809

The specification of the ADC0809, total unadjusted error ± 1.2 LSB and ± 1 LSB with the resolution 8 bits, and have a conversion time 100ms and share resources that are used with a +5 volt, power 15mW, with the specifications of the ADC is what the ADC is easy to use interface in different series, just on a series of ADC is the need of adding a series of clock

Configuration of the pin ADC0809 indicated that there were 28 units where the pins of each pin on the ADC function: Pin 8,14,15,17,18,19,20,21 digital data output is a result of conversion of the A DC where the eighth output can be directly connected to the data bus.
and pin 1,2,3,4,5,26,27,28 is the pin input, that there is a 8-pin or 8 input channels, this is the pin on the analog signal is converted will linked, while the pin is a pin 23,24,25 A, B, C that functions as a selector input lines which will be converted, and a pins as well as other ADC0804, so that input can be converted eight following truth table:

 Channel yang dipilih Jalur lamat IN0 C B A IN1 L L L IN2 L L H IN3 L H H IN4 H L L IN5 H L H IN6 H H L IN7 H H H

0809 ADC input must be analog voltage output from the sensor to its magnitude usually ranges from 0-5V.

### Simple circuit of elektronic buzzer

Gbr. Skema Rangkaian Elektronic buzzer

Simple Electronic buzzer series is a series that only use 2 resistor, 3 capacitor , NE555 Chip, switch, and speaker. string up series of simple electronic buzzer is also very easy and simple. IC NE555 is the frequency of 1 kHz when the switch is pressed. This frequency can be set using the potensiometer 10 KOhm. Picture a series of simple electronic buzzer can be seen above:

IC NE555

555 timer IC provides practical solutions and relatively inexpensive for a variety of electronic applications related to the timing (timing). Especially two of the most popular application is a series of monostable and astable timing.

• Pin 1: Ground, is the input pin of the source of the negative DC voltage
• Pin 2: trigger, negative input from the lower comparators (comparator B) that maintain oscillation capacitor voltage in the lowest 1 / 3 Vcc and set RS flip-flop
• Pin 3: output, the output pin of the IC 555.
• Pin 4: reset, the pin that serves to reset the latch inside the IC to be influential to reset the IC work. This pin is connected to a PNP-type transistor gate, so the transistor will be active if given a logic low. Normally this pin is connected directly to Vcc to prevent reset
• Pin 5: control voltage, this pin serves to regulate the stability of the reference voltage negative input (comparator A). This pin can be left hanging, but to ensure the stability of the reference comparator A, usually associated with a capacitor of about 10nF to berorde pin groun
• Pin 6: threshold, this pin is connected to the positive input (comparator A) which will reset the RS flip-flop when the voltage on the capacitor from exceeding 2 / 3 Vc
• Pin 7: discharge, this pin is connected to an open collector transistor Q1 is connected to ground emitternya. Switching transistor serves to clamp the corresponding node to ground on the timing of certain
• Pin 8: vcc, pin it to receive a DC voltage supply. Usually will work optimally if given a 5-15V. the current supply can be seen in the datasheet, which is about 10-15mA.