side of the disc, in line with the IR LED, a phototransistor is mounted. IC LM324 is wired as a comparator. When a hole appears between the IR LED and phototransistor, the phototransistor conducts. Hence the voltage at collector of the phototransistor and inverting input of LM324 go ‘low’, and thus output of LM324 becomes logic ‘high’. So rotation of the speedometer cable results in a pulse (square wave) at the output of LM324. The frequency of this waveform is proportional to the speed.